What is endometriosis ?
One of the most common abdominal diseases in women. The uterine lining also settles here outside the uterine cavity, for example on the ovaries or between the uterus and rectum. As a rule, sexually mature women are affected. Endometriosis is rarely noticeable before the first or after the last menstrual period.
In endometriosis, scattered cell clusters from the uterine lining (endometrium) occur outside the uterine cavity. These cell islands are called endometriosis foci. Depending on their location, doctors differentiate between three broad groups of endometriosis: Internal genital endometriosis: Endometriosis foci within the muscle layer of the uterine wall (myometrium). External genital endometriosis: the most common form of the disease. Endometriosis foci in the genital area (in the small pelvis), but outside the uterus, for example in the ovaries, on the straps of the uterus, or in the Douglas space (recess between the uterus and rectum).Endometriosis extragenital: Endometriosis foci outside the small pelvis, for example in the intestine (endometriosis intestine), in the bladder, in the ureters, or – very rarely – in the lungs, in the brain, in the spleen, or the skeleton. The endometriosis foci are estrogen-dependent and behave like the mucous membrane within the uterine cavity: They are built up and shed again alternately during the menstrual cycle (with a little bleeding). The cell residues and the blood cannot be excreted through the vagina – as with the regular mucous membrane in the uterine cavity. Sometimes the body can remove them easily and unnoticed (absorb them into the surrounding tissue and break them down). Often, however, tissue residues and blood from the endometriosis focus cause inflammation and adhesions or adhesions that can cause more or less severe pain. Besides, so-called chocolate cysts (endometriomas) can form, for example on the ovaries. Cysts are fluid-filled cavities. In endometriosis patients, these cavities are filled with old, clotted blood and appear brownish as a result. Hence the name chocolate cysts.
N.B. if you suffer from pain during your period you must keep reading the article